Energy Relation for Closed Conduit Flow
Conservation of energy involves a balance in total energy, expressed as head, between any upstream point of flow and a corresponding downstream point, including head losses caused by friction and the viscous dissipation of turbulence at bends and other appurtenances (i.e., form losses or minor losses). The energy equation states that the incoming energy plus the energy gain (addition) equals the outgoing energy plus the energy loss. The one-dimensional steady flow form of the energy equation is
A typical graphical representation of the terms in Equation (1) is shown in the following figure.
Definition Sketch for (a) Open Channel Flow, and (b) Pressurized Pipe Flow