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Refactoring the SWMM 5 Help File – Output in SWMM5

Output in SWMM5

Viewing Simulation Results

This section describes the different ways in which the results of a simulation can be viewed. These include a status report, a summary report, various map views, graphs, tables, and a statistical frequency report.

Viewing a status report

Viewing a summary report

Variables that can be viewed

Viewing results on the map

Viewing results with a graph

Viewing results with a table

Viewing a statistics report

Viewing a Status Report

A Status Report is available for viewing after each simulation. It contains information on the following:

· Analysis Options
· Input Summary (if requested in the Reporting Options)
· Rain File Summary
· Error Messages
· Control Actions (if requested in the Reporting Options)
· Continuity Errors
· Stability Results.

To view the Status Report select Report >> Status from the Main Menu or click the button and select Status Report from the drop-down menu that appears.

To copy selected text from the Status Report to a file or to the Windows Clipboard, first select the text to copy with the mouse and then choose Edit >> Copy To from the Main Menu (or press the button on the Standard Toolbar).

To save both the entire Status Report and Summary Report to file, select File >> Export >> Status/Summary Report from the Main Menu.

Viewing Summary Results

SWMM’s Summary Results report lists summary results for each subcatchment, node, and link in the project through a selectable list of tables. To view the various summary results tables, select Report >> Summary from the Main Menu or click the button and select Summary Results from the drop-down menu that appears. The Summary Results window looks as follows:

The drop-down box at the upper left allows you to choose the type of results to view. The choices are:

· Subcatchment Runoff
· LID Performance
· Groundwater Summary
· Subcatchment Washoff
· Node Depths
· Node Inflows
· Node Surcharging
· Node Flooding
· Storage Volumes
· Outfall Loadings
· Link Flows
· Flow Classification
· Conduit Surcharging
· Link Pollutant Loads
· Pumping Summary

Only summary categories relevant to the particular project and its results will be listed (e.g., Node Flooding and Pumping Summary will not appear if the run has no flooded nodes and the project has no pumps, respectively).

Clicking on the name of an object in the first column of the table will locate that object both in the Project Browser and on the Study Area Map. Clicking on a column heading will sort the entries in the table by the values in that column (alternating between ascending and descending order with each click.

Selecting Edit >> Copy To from the Main Menu or clicking on the Standard Toolbar will allow you to copy the contents of the table to either the Windows Clipboard or to a file. To save both the entire Status Report and all tables of the Summary Report to a file, select File >> Export >> Status/Summary Report from the Main Menu.

Variables That Can be Viewed

Time series results for the following variables are available for viewing on the map and can be plotted, tabulated, and statistically analyzed:

Subcatchment Variables

· rainfall rate (in/hr or mm/hr)
· snow depth (inches or millimeters)
· evaporation loss (in/day or mm/day)
· infiltration loss (in/hr or mm/hr)
· runoff flow (flow units)
· groundwater flow into the drainage network (flow units)
· groundwater elevation (ft or m)
· soil moisture in the unsaturated groundwater zone (volume fraction)
· washoff concentration of each pollutant (mass/liter)
Link Variables

· flow rate (flow units)
· average water depth (ft or m)
· flow velocity (ft/sec or m/sec)
· volume of water (ft3 or m3)
· capacity (fraction of full area filled by flow for conduits; control setting for pumps and regulators)
· concentration of each pollutant (mass/liter)
Node Variables

· water depth (ft or m above the node invert elevation)
· hydraulic head (ft or m, absolute elevation per vertical datum)
· stored water volume (including ponded water, ft3 or m3)
· lateral inflow (runoff + all other external inflows, in flow units)
· total inflow (lateral inflow + upstream inflows, in flow units)
· surface flooding (excess overflow when the node is at full depth, in flow units)
· concentration of each pollutant after any treatment (mass/liter)
System-Wide Variables

· air temperature (degrees F or C)
· potential evaporation (in/day or mm/day)
· actual evaporation (in/day or mm/day)
· total rainfall (in/hr or mm/hr)
· total snow depth (inches or millimeters)
· average losses (in/hr or mm/hr)
· total runoff (flow units)
· total dry weather inflow (flow units)
· total groundwater inflow (flow units)
· total RDII inflow (flow units)
· total direct inflow (flow units)
· total external inflow (flow units)
· total external flooding (flow units)
· total outflow from outfalls (flow units)
· total nodal storage volume ( ft3 or m3)

These variables can be viewed only for those subcatchments, nodes, and links that were selected to have detailed time series results saved for them. This normally includes all such objects in the project unless the Reporting option (under the Options category in the Project Browser) was used to select specific objects to report on. For nodes and links, results are normally point values computed (or interpolated) at the end of each reporting time step. They can also be the average of all values computed during a time step if Report Average Results is selected as a Reporting option.

Time Series Plots

A Time Series Plot graphs the values over time of specific combinations of objects and variables. Up to six time series can be plotted on the same graph. When only a single time series is plotted, and that item has calibration data registered for the plotted variable, then the calibration data will be plotted along with the simulated results.

To create a Time Series Plot:

1. Select Report >> Graph >> Time Series from the Main Menu or click the button.
2. A Time Series Plot dialog will appear. Use it to describe what objects and variables should be plotted.

To customize the appearance of a time series plot:

1. Make the plot the active window (click on its title bar).
2. Select Report >> Customize from the Main Menu, or click the button, or simply right-click on the graph.
3. Use the Graph Options dialog that appears to customize the plot’s appearance.
Time Series Plot Selection Dialog

The Time Series Plot Selection dialog specifies a set of objects and their variables whose computed time series will be graphed in a Time Series Plot. The dialog is used as follows:

1. Select a Start Date and End Date for the plot (the default is the entire simulation period).
2. Choose whether to show time as Elapsed Time or as Date/Time values.
3. Add up to six different data series to the plot by clicking the Add button above the data series list box.
4. Use the Edit button to make changes to a selected data series or the Delete button to delete a data series.
5. Use the Up and Down buttons to change the order in which the data series will be plotted.
6. Click the OK button to create the plot.

When you click the Add or Edit buttons aData Series Selection dialog will be displayed for selecting a particular object and variable to plot.

Viewing Results with a Table

Time series results for selected variables and objects can also be viewed in a tabular format. There are two types of formats available:

· Table by Object – tabulates the time series of several variables for a single object (e.g., flow and water depth for a conduit).
· Table by Variable – tabulates the time series of a single variable for several objects of the same type (e.g., runoff for a group of subcatchments).

To create a tabular report:

1. Select Report >> Table from the Main Menu or click the button.
2. Choose the table format (either By Object or By Variable) from the sub-menu that appears.
3. Fill in the Table by Object or Table by Variable dialogs to specify what information the table should contain.
Viewing Results with a Graph

Analysis results can be viewed using several different types of graphs. Graphs can be printed, copied to the Windows clipboard, or saved to a text file or to a Windows metafile. The following types of graphs can be created from available simulation results:

· Time Series Plot
· Profile Plot
· Scatter Plot

You can zoom in or out of any graph by holding down the <Shift> key while drawing a zoom rectangle with the mouse’s left button held down. Drawing the rectangle from left to right zooms in, drawing from right to left zooms out. The plot can also be panned in any direction by holding down the <Ctrl> key and moving the mouse across the plot with the left button held down.

An opened graph will normally be redrawn when a new simulation is run. To prevent the automatic updating of a graph once a new set of results is computed you can lock the current graph by clicking the icon in the upper left corner of the graph. To unlock the graph, click the icon again.

See Also

Copying the Current View

Printing the Current View

Report Menu

The Report Menu contains commands used to report analysis results in different formats.

Command Description
Status Displays a status report for the most recent simulation run
Summary Displays summary results in tabular form
Graph Displays simulation results in graphical form
Table Displays simulation results in tabular form
Statistics Displays a statistical analysis of simulation results
Customize Customizes the display of the currently active graph
Report and Output Files

The Report File is a plain text file created after every SWMM run that contains the contents of both the Status Report and all of the tables included in the Summary Results report. Refer to the two aforementioned topics to review its content.

The Output File is a binary file that contains the numerical results from a successful SWMM run. This file is used by SWMM’s user interface to interactively create time series plots and tables, profile plots, and statistical analyses of a simulation’s results.

Whenever a successfully run project is either saved or closed, the report and output files are saved with the same name as the project file, but with extensions of .rpt and .out. This will happen automatically if the program preference Prompt to Save Results is turned off. Otherwise you will be asked if the current results should be saved or not. If results are saved then the next time the project is opened, the results from these files will automatically be available for viewing.

Reporting Options Dialog

The Reporting Options dialog is used to select individual subcatchments, nodes, and links that will have detailed time series results saved for viewing after a simulation has been run. The default for new projects is that all objects will have detailed results saved for them. It is also used to select what optional material appears in the Status Report and whether time series results consist of point value (the default) or values averaged over a reporting time step.

The dialog contains three tabbed pages – one each for subcatchments, nodes, and links. It is a stay-on-top form which means that you can select items directly from the Study Area Map or Project Browser while the dialog remains visible.

To include an object in the set that is reported on:

1. Select the tab to which the object belongs (Subcatchments, Nodes or Links).
2. Unselect the "All" check box if it is currently checked.
3. Select the specific object either from the Study Area Map or from the listing in the Project Browser.
4. Click the Add button on the dialog.
5. Repeat the above steps for any additional objects.

To remove an item from the set selected for reporting:

1. Select the desired item in the dialog’s list box.
2. Click the Remove button to remove the item.

To remove all items from the reporting set of a given object category, select the object category’s page and click the Clear button.

To include all objects of a given category in the reporting set, check the "All" box on the page for that category (i.e., subcatchments, nodes, or links). This will override any individual items that may be currently listed on the page.

To dismiss the dialog click the Close button.

In addition the following reporting options can be selected from this dialog:

Report Input Summary

Check this option if you want the simulation’s Status Report to list a summary of the project’s input data.

Report Control Actions

Check this option if you want the simulation’s Status Report to list all discrete control actions taken by the Control Rules associated with a project (continuous modulated control actions are not listed). This option should only be used for short-term simulation.

Report Average Results

Check this option if you want the average of the results for all routing time steps that fall within a reporting time step to be reported instead of the instantaneous point results that occur at the end of the reporting time step.

Scatter Plots

A Scatter Plot displays the relationship between a pair of variables, such as flow rate in a pipe versus water depth at a node.

To create a Scatter Plot:

1. Select Report >> Graph >> Scatter from the Main Menu or click the button.
2. Specify what time interval and what pair of objects and their variables to plot using the Scatter Plot dialog that appears.

To customize the appearance of a scatter plot:

1. Make the plot the active window (click on its title bar).
2. Select Report >> Customize from the Main Menu, or click on the Standard Toolbar, or simply right-click on the graph.
3. Use the Graph Options dialog that appears to customize the plot’s appearance.
Scatter Plot Dialog

The Scatter Plot dialog is used to select the objects and variables to be graphed against one another in a scatter plot. Use the dialog as follows:

1. Select a Start Date and End Date for the plot (the default is the entire simulation period).
2. Select the following choices for the X-variable (the quantity plotted along the horizontal axis):
· Object Category (Subcatchment, Node or Link)
· Object ID (enter a value or click on the object either on the Study Area Map or in the Project Browser and then click the button on the dialog)
· Variable to plot (choices depend on the category of object selected).
3. Do the same for the Y-variable (the quantity plotted along the vertical axis).
4. Click the OK button to create the plot.
Profile Plots

A Profile Plot displays the variation in simulated water depth with distance over a connected path of drainage system links and nodes at a particular point in time. Once the plot has been created it will be automatically updated as a new time period is selected using the Map Browser.

To create a Profile Plot:

1. Select Report >> Graph >> Profile from the Main Menu or click the button.
2. A Profile Plot dialog will appear. Use it to identify the path along which the profile plot is to be drawn.

To customize the appearance of a profile plot:

1. Make the plot the active window (click on its title bar).
2. Select Report >> Customize from the Main Menu, or click on the Standard Toolbar, or simply right-click on the graph.
3. Use the Profile Plot Options dialog that appears to customize the plot’s appearance.

Profile plots can also be created before any simulation results are available, to help visualize and verify the vertical layout of a drainage system. Plots created in this manner will contain a refresh button in the upper left corner that can be used to redraw the plot after edits are made to any elevation data appearing in the plot.

Profile Plot Selection Dialog

The Profile Plot Selection dialog is used to specify a path of connected drainage system links along which a water depth profile versus distance should be drawn. To define a path using the dialog:

1. Enter the ID of the upstream node of the first link in the path in the Start Node edit field (or click on the node on the Study Area Map and then on the button next to the edit field).
2. Enter the ID of the downstream node of the last link in the path in the End Node edit field (or click the node on the map and then click the button next to the edit field).
3. Click the Find Path button to have the program automatically identify the path with the smallest number of links between the start and end nodes. These will be listed in the Links in Profile box.
4. You can insert a new link into the Links in Profile list by selecting the new link either on the Study Area Map or in the Project Browser and then clicking the button underneath the Links in Profile list box.
5. Entries in the Links in Profile list can be deleted or rearranged by using the , , and buttons underneath the list box
6. Click the OK button to view the profile plot.

To save the current set of links listed in the dialog for future use:

1. Click the Save Current Profile button.
2. Supply a name for the profile when prompted.

To use a previously saved profile:

1. Click the Use Saved Profile button.
2. Select the profile to use from the Profile Selection dialog that appears.
Profile Plot Options Dialog

The Profile Plot Options dialog is used to customize the appearance of a Profile Plot. The dialog contains five pages:

1. Colors:

Selects the color to use for the plot window panel, the plot background, a conduit’s interior, and the depth of filled water. Also includes a "Display Conduits Only" checkbox that provides a closer look at the water levels within conduits by removing all other details from the plot.

2. Styles

Lets one choose:

· to use thick lines when drawing conduits and the ground profile
· to display the ground profile
· to display conduits only (which provides a closer look at water levels within conduits by removing all other details form the plot).
3. Axes

Edits the main and axis titles, including their fonts, and selects to display axis grid lines.

4. Vertical Scale

Lets one choose the minimum, maximum, and increment values for the vertical axis scale, or have SWMM set the scale automatically. If the increment field contains 0 or is left blank the program will automatically select an increment to use.

5. Node Labels
· Selects to display node ID labels either along the plot’s top axis, directly on the plot above the node’s crown height, or both.
· Selects the length of arrow to draw between the node label and the node’s crown on the plot (use 0 for no arrows).
· Selects the font size of the node ID labels.

Check the Default box if you want these options to apply to all new profile plots when they are first created.

Viewing a Statistics Report

A Statistics Report can be generated from the time series of simulation results. For a given object and variable this report will do the following:

· segregate the simulation period into a sequence of non-overlapping events, either by day, month, or by flow (or volume) above some minimum threshold value,
· compute a statistical value that characterizes each event, such as the mean, maximum, or total sum of the variable over the event’s time period,
· compute summary statistics for the entire set of event values (mean, standard deviation and skewness),
· perform a frequency analysis on the set of event values.

The frequency analysis of event values will determine the frequency at which a particular event value has occurred and will also estimate a return period for each event value. Statistical analyses of this nature are most suitable for long-term continuous simulation runs.

To generate a Statistics Report:

1. Select Report >> Statistics from the Main Menu or click the button.
2. Fill in the Statistics Selection dialog that appears, specifying the object, variable, and event definition to be analyzed.

The Statistics Report consists of four tabbed pages that contain:

· a table of event summary statistics
· a table of rank-ordered event periods, including their date, duration, and magnitude
· a histogram plot of the chosen event statistic
· an exceedance frequency plot of the event values.

The exceedance frequencies included in the Statistics Report are computed with respect to the number of events that occur, not the total number of reporting periods.

Statistics Selection Dialog

The Statistics Selection dialog is used to define the type of statistical analysis to be made on a computed simulation result. It contains the following data fields:

Object Category

Select the category of object to analyze (Subcatchment, Node, Link, or System).

Object Name

Enter the ID name of the object to analyze. Instead of typing in an ID name, you can select the object on the Study Area Map or in the Project Browser and then click the button to select it into the object name field.

Variable Analyzed

Select the variable to be analyzed. The available choices depend on the object category selected (e.g., rainfall, losses, or runoff for subcatchments; depth, inflow, or flooding for nodes; depth, flow, velocity, or capacity for links; water quality for all categories).

Event Time Period

Select the length of the time period that defines an event. The choices are daily, monthly, or event-dependent. In the latter case, the event period depends on the number of consecutive reporting periods where simulation results are above the threshold values defined below.

Statistic

Choose an event statistic to be analyzed. The available choices depend on the choice of variable to be analyzed and include such quantities as mean value, peak value, event total, event duration, and inter-event time (i.e., the time interval between the midpoints of successive events). For water quality variables the choices include mean concentration, peak concentration, mean loading, peak loading, and event total load.

Event Thresholds

These define minimum values that must be met for an event to occur:

· The Analysis Variable threshold specifies the minimum value of the variable being analyzed that must be exceeded for a time period to be included in an event.
· The Event Volume threshold specifies a minimum flow volume (or rainfall volume) that must be exceeded for a result to be counted as part of an event. Enter 0 if no volume threshold applies.
· Separation Time sets the minimum number of hours that must occur between the end of one event and the start of the next event. Events with fewer hours are combined together. This value applies only to event-dependent time periods (not to daily or monthly event periods).

If a particular type of threshold does not apply, then leave the field blank.

Viewing Results on the Map

There are several ways to view the values of certain input parameters and simulation results directly on the Study Area Map:

· For the current settings on the Map Browser, the subcatchments, nodes and links of the map will be colored according to their respective Map Legends. The map’s color coding will be updated as a new time period is selected in the Map Browser.
· When the Flyover Map Labeling program preference is selected, moving the mouse over any map object will display its ID name and the value of its current theme parameter in a hint-style box.
· ID names and parameter values can be displayed next to all subcatchments, nodes and/or links by selecting the appropriate options on the Annotation page of the Map Options dialog.
· Subcatchments, nodes or links meeting a specific criterion can be identified by submitting a Map Query.
· You can animate the display of results on the network map either forward or backward in time by using the controls on the Animator panel of the Map Browser.
· The map can be printed, copied to the Windows clipboard, or saved as a DXF file or Windows metafile.
Unstable Flow Routing Results

Due to the explicit nature of the numerical methods used for Dynamic Wave routing (and to a lesser extent, Kinematic Wave routing), the flows in some links or water depths at some nodes may fluctuate or oscillate significantly at certain periods of time as a result of numerical instabilities produced by the solution method. SWMM does not automatically identify when such conditions exist, so it is up to the user to verify the numerical stability of the model and to determine if the simulation results are valid for the modeling objectives. Time series plots at key locations in the network can help identify such situations as can a scatter plot between a link’s flow and the corresponding water depth at its upstream node. (See Viewing Results with a Graph).

Numerical instabilities can occur over short durations and may not be apparent when time series are plotted with a long time interval. When detecting such instabilities, it is recommended that a reporting time step of 1 minute or less be used, at least for an initial screening of results.

The run’s Status Report will list the links having the five highest values of a Flow Instability Index (FII). This index counts the number of times that the flow value in a link is higher (or lower) than the flow in both the previous and subsequent time periods. The index is normalized with respect to the expected number of such ‘turns’ that would occur for a purely random series of values and can range from 0 to 150. Flow time series plots for the links having the highest FII’s should be inspected to insure that flow routing results are acceptably stable.

Numerical instabilities under Dynamic Wave flow routing can be reduced by:

· reducing the routing time step
· utilizing the variable time step option with a smaller time step factor
· selecting to ignore the inertial terms of the momentum equation
· selecting the option to lengthen short conduits.
Table by Object Dialog

The Table by Object dialog is used when creating a time series table of several variables for a single object. Use the dialog as follows:

1. Select a Start Date and End Date for the table (the default is the entire simulation period).
2. Choose whether to show time as Elapsed Time or as Date/Time values.
3. Choose an Object Category (Subcatchment, Node, Link, or System).
4. Identify a specific object in the category by clicking the object either on the Study Area Map or in the Project Browser and then clicking the button on the dialog. Only a single object can be selected for this type of table.
5. Check off the variables to be tabulated for the selected object. The available choices depend on the category of object selected.
6. Click the OK button to create the table.
Table by Variable Dialog

The Table by Variable dialog is used when creating a time series table of a single variable for one or more objects. Use the dialog as follows:

1. Select a Start Date and End Date for the table (the default is the entire simulation period).
2. Choose whether to show time as Elapsed Time or as Date/Time values.
3. Choose an Object Category (Subcatchment, Node or Link).
4. Select a simulated variable to be tabulated. The available choices depend on the category of object selected.
5. Identify one or more objects in the category by successively clicking the object either on the Study Area Map or in the Project Browser and then clicking the button on the dialog.
6. Click the OK button to create the table.

A maximum of 6 objects can be selected for a single table. Objects already selected can be deleted, moved up in the order or moved down in the order by clicking the , , and buttons, respectively.

Graph Options – Styles

The Styles page of the Graph Options dialog box controls how individual data series (or curves) are displayed on a graph. To use this page:

1. Select a data series to work with from the Series combo box.
2. Edit the title used to identify this series in the legend.
3. Click the Font button to change the font used for the legend. (Other legend properties are selected on the Legend page of the dialog.)
4. Select a property of the data series you would like to modify (not all properties are available for some types of graphs). The choices are:
· Lines
· Markers
· Patterns
· Labels
Graph Options – Legend

The Legend page of the Graph Options dialog box controls how the legend is displayed on the graph.

Option Description
Position Selects where to place the legend.
Color Selects color to use for the legend background.
Check Boxes If selected, check boxes will appear next to each legend entry, allowing one to make the data series visible or invisible on the graph.
Framed Places a frame around the legend.
Shadowed Places a shadow behind the legend’s text.
Transparent Makes the legend background transparent.
Visible Makes the legend visible.
Symbol Width Selects the width used to draw the symbol portion of a legend item, as a percentage of the length of the longest legend label.

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