LID Controls in InfoSWMM and InfoSWMM Sustain – Introduction
LID Controls are low impact development practices designed to capture surface runoff and provide some combination of detention, infiltration, and evapotranspiration to it. They are considered as properties of a given Subcatchment, similar to how Aquifers and Snow Packs are treated. SWMM can explicitly model five different generic types of LID controls:
· Bio-retention Cells are depressions that contain vegetation grown in an engineered soil mixture placed above a gravel drainage bed. They provide storage, infiltration and evaporation of both direct rainfall and runoff captured from surrounding areas. Rain gardens, street planters, and green roofs are all variations of bio-retention cells.
· Infiltration Trenches are narrow ditches filled with gravel that intercept runoff from upslope impervious areas. They provide storage volume and additional time for captured runoff to infiltrate the native soil below.
· Continuous Porous Pavement systems are excavated areas filled with gravel and paved over with a porous concrete or asphalt mix. Normally all rainfall will immediately pass through the pavement into the gravel storage layer below it where it can infiltrate at natural rates into the site’s native soil. Block Paver systems consist of impervious paver blocks placed on a sand or pea gravel bed with a gravel storage layer below. Rainfall is captured in the open spaces between the blocks and conveyed to the storage zone and native soil below.
· Rain Barrels (or Cisterns) are containers that collect roof runoff during storm events and can either release or re-use the rainwater during dry periods.
· Vegetative Swales are channels or depressed areas with sloping sides covered with grass and other vegetation. They slow down the conveyance of collected runoff and allow it more time to infiltrate the native soil beneath it.
Bio-retention cells, infiltration trenches, and porous pavement systems can all contain optional underdrain systems in their gravel storage beds to convey captured runoff off of the site rather than letting it all infiltrate. They can also have an impermeable floor or liner that prevents any infiltration into the native soil from occurring. Infiltration trenches and porous pavement systems can also be subjected to a decrease in hydraulic conductivity over time due to clogging.
Although some LID practices can also provide significant pollutant reduction benefits, at this time SWMM5, InfoSWMM and H2OMAP SWMM only models their hydrologic performance. For more details on using LID controls within SWMM5, InfoSWMM and H2OMAP SWMM see the following topics:
General location note for DB Tables and Attribute Browser
The LID DB Tables are in the Hydrologic Data Tables, You can access the LID Controls as well by using the Operations Tab of the Attribute Browser.