Time of Concentration
The dialog box for estimating time of concentration using the Kirpich method is shown below.
- General Input for the time of concentration methods:
· Unit System – English or SI unit.
· Solving Target – Choose time of concentration.
· Equations – Select one of the eight … Read the rest
3.4 Gradually Varied Flow
Discussions in the previous sections have focused on uniform flow hydraulics where flow depth y and flow velocity V remain constant along the channel. In this section, we consider gradually varied flow, which is a form of steady nonuniform flow characterized by gradual variations in flow … Read the rest
Note for SWMM6 - this may be useful for any discussion of a Slot in SWMM6. A Preissmann Slot is used in InfoWorks ICM, XPSWMM and one of the solutions of SWMM4
The wave speed, c, is influenced by the elasticity of the pipe wall. For a … Read the rest
2.3.1 Flow Calculator (Simple in Innovyze H2OCalc)
The Flow Calculator category performs hydraulic calculations for the following elements: Circular Channel, Rectangular Channel, Triangular Channel, Trapezoidal Channel, Irregular Channel, and Pressurized Pipe.
The circular channel dialog box is shown below.
Input for circular channel:
… Read the rest
3.11 Weirs in Innovyze H2OCalc
Discharge in channels and small streams can be conveniently measured by using a weir. Weirs can be categorized in to two: sharp crested and broad crested.
A sharp-crested weir is a vertical plate placed in a channel that forces the liquid to flow … Read the rest
3.6 Pump Calculations in Innovyze H2OCalc
A Pump is used to augment head to the system (water distribution systems or waste water collection systems), and helps to lift water from low lying locations to a top of a hill or reservoir so that water could flow by gravity. The following … Read the rest
3.14 Water Hammer
Surge analysis is important to estimate the worst-case events in the Water Distribution Systems (WDS). Transient regimes in WDS are inevitable and will normally occur as a result of action at pump stations and control valves. Regions that are particularly susceptible to transients are high elevation areas, … Read the rest
3.3 Moody Friction Factor Calculator
Darcy-Weisbach friction factor, f, can be evaluated in terms of equivalent sand grain roughness, e, and Reynolds number, Re. Reynolds number is a dimensionless ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces acting on flow and is defined for any cross-sectional shape as
For … Read the rest
3.7 Head loss due to Transitions and Fittings (Local loss)
Whenever flow velocity changes direction or magnitude in a conduit (e.g., at fittings, bends, and other appurtenances) added turbulence is induced. The energy associated with that turbulence is eventually dissipated into heat that produces a minor head loss, or local … Read the rest
3.13 Urban Drainage Structures
The methodology presented here for analysis and design of the drainage structures described in this section is based on HEC-22 manual (FHWA, 2001)
Gutters are the sections of roadway that run adjacent to the curb. Their purpose is to collect and convey surface runoff … Read the rest