Objective Functions in the Genetic Algorithm of InfoSWMM and InfoSWMM SA
The objective of the optimal calibration problem is to minimize the numerical discrepancy between the observed and predicted values of link flow, link depth, and/or link velocity at various locations in the system. Any of the following five different … Read the rest
The successful application of a sewer collection system model to the planning, design, and management of urban stormwater systems is highly dependent upon how well the model is calibrated and how well the model mimics the reality. Model calibration consists of fine tuning of model parameters until the … Read the rest
#SuDS in InfoWorks ICM
In InfoWorks ICM 6.5 and later the SWMM 5 LID Controls were added to the Subcatchment Grid of ICM. Here is a copy of the ICM Help File. The LID Controls are entered in the Subcatchment Grid (1), in the SuDS or LID Tab (2), it … Read the rest
SWMM5 Network Export from ICM 8.5 Help File
InfoWorks ICM can export networks to SWMM5 data format.
To export to SWMM5 file:
- In the explorer window, right-click on the network to be exported.
… Read the rest
- Select Export | to SWMM5 from the popup menu. The Select Network Version and Scenario Dialog
Stormwater and Wastewater Modeling with Visual Hydro/Visual SWMM
Storm Water Management Pond Example with Manhole Flooding, Overland Flow Routing, Pond Evaporation, Pond Losses and Conduit Design.
Visual Hydro/Visual SWMM can comprehensively model storm water management systems that include mixtures of open channel and closed conduits. It can also … Read the rest
Peak Discharge: SCS Peak Discharge Method
The dialog box for the SCS peak discharge method is shown below.
· Input for the SCS peak discharge method:
· Unit System – English or SI unit.
· Solving Target – Peak discharge or time of concentration.
· Equations – Rational method or … Read the rest
Energy Relation for Closed Conduit Flow
Conservation of energy involves a balance in total energy, expressed as head, between any upstream point of flow and a corresponding downstream point, including head losses caused by friction and the viscous dissipation of turbulence at bends and other appurtenances (i.e., form losses or … Read the rest
Gutters are the sections of roadway that run adjacent to the curb. Their purpose is to collect and convey surface runoff to drainage inlets and in turn to underground storm sewers. The corresponding spread of water onto the pavement, or top width of flow measured perpendicular to the … Read the rest
3.5 Hydraulic Jump
When the flow is Supercritical in an upstream section of a channel and is then forced to become subcritical in a downstream section, a rather abrupt change in depth usually occurs and considerable energy loss accompanies the process. This flow phenomenon, known as hydraulic jump, is described … Read the rest
Pump Characteristic Curve
Pump Characteristic Curve
Pump characteristic curves are usually presented graphically describing the relationship between pump head, hp, and the flow rate, Q using either an exponential equation or 3-point quadratic form. The exponential pump characteristic curve is given as
where hc = the pump cutoff head … Read the rest
Inertia of Pumps and Motors
The combined inertia of pumps and motors driving them, including the connecting shafts and couplings, is required for transient analysis associated with the starting and stopping of pumps. The equations provided below are intended to be used as an initial guide to the inertia values … Read the rest
Time of Concentration
The dialog box for estimating time of concentration using the Kirpich method is shown below.
- General Input for the time of concentration methods:
· Unit System – English or SI unit.
· Solving Target – Choose time of concentration.
· Equations – Select one of the eight … Read the rest
3.4 Gradually Varied Flow
Discussions in the previous sections have focused on uniform flow hydraulics where flow depth y and flow velocity V remain constant along the channel. In this section, we consider gradually varied flow, which is a form of steady nonuniform flow characterized by gradual variations in flow … Read the rest
Note for SWMM6 - this may be useful for any discussion of a Slot in SWMM6. A Preissmann Slot is used in InfoWorks ICM, XPSWMM and one of the solutions of SWMM4
The wave speed, c, is influenced by the elasticity of the pipe wall. For a … Read the rest
2.3.1 Flow Calculator (Simple in Innovyze H2OCalc)
The Flow Calculator category performs hydraulic calculations for the following elements: Circular Channel, Rectangular Channel, Triangular Channel, Trapezoidal Channel, Irregular Channel, and Pressurized Pipe.
The circular channel dialog box is shown below.
Input for circular channel:
… Read the rest
3.11 Weirs in Innovyze H2OCalc
Discharge in channels and small streams can be conveniently measured by using a weir. Weirs can be categorized in to two: sharp crested and broad crested.
A sharp-crested weir is a vertical plate placed in a channel that forces the liquid to flow … Read the rest
3.6 Pump Calculations in Innovyze H2OCalc
A Pump is used to augment head to the system (water distribution systems or waste water collection systems), and helps to lift water from low lying locations to a top of a hill or reservoir so that water could flow by gravity. The following … Read the rest
3.14 Water Hammer
Surge analysis is important to estimate the worst-case events in the Water Distribution Systems (WDS). Transient regimes in WDS are inevitable and will normally occur as a result of action at pump stations and control valves. Regions that are particularly susceptible to transients are high elevation areas, … Read the rest
3.3 Moody Friction Factor Calculator
Darcy-Weisbach friction factor, f, can be evaluated in terms of equivalent sand grain roughness, e, and Reynolds number, Re. Reynolds number is a dimensionless ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces acting on flow and is defined for any cross-sectional shape as
For … Read the rest
3.7 Head loss due to Transitions and Fittings (Local loss)
Whenever flow velocity changes direction or magnitude in a conduit (e.g., at fittings, bends, and other appurtenances) added turbulence is induced. The energy associated with that turbulence is eventually dissipated into heat that produces a minor head loss, or local … Read the rest
3.13 Urban Drainage Structures
The methodology presented here for analysis and design of the drainage structures described in this section is based on HEC-22 manual (FHWA, 2001)
Gutters are the sections of roadway that run adjacent to the curb. Their purpose is to collect and convey surface runoff … Read the rest
General Culvert Information from Innovyze H2OCalc for All Culvert Programs
A culvert is a pipe that carries water under or through some feature (usually a road or highway) that would otherwise block the flow of water. The culvert acts as an open channel as long as the flow is partly … Read the rest
Computational Methods for the SWMM5 Model in InfoSWMM and InfoSWMM SA
InfoSWMM and InfoSWMM SA is a physically based, discrete-time simulation model. It employs principles of conservation of mass, energy, and momentum wherever appropriate. This section briefly describes the methods InfoSWMM and InfoSWMM SA uses to model stormwater runoff quantity … Read the rest
How to use Transects in InfoSWMM and InfoSWMM SA
Transects refer to the geometric data that describe how bottom elevation varies with horizontal distance over the cross section of a natural channel or irregular-shaped conduit. The following figure displays an example of a transect for a natural channel.
Each transect … Read the rest
2D Simulation Options from InfoWorks ICM in InfoSWMM and InfoSWMM SA
If you have an InfoSWMM 2D license and you have set up your model with all of the necessary 2D elements and parameters, you can enable the 2D Simulation option. You must also set the 2D simulation options to … Read the rest